Soybeans Farming in Nigeria (Soyabeans Farming) – A Guide
Soybeans farming is the cultivation of soyabeans crop from the initial step of land preparation to the final steps of harvesting the soyabeans crop, storage and marketing. Soybeans farming involves all the steps needed for a farmer to sow the seeds of soybeans in the soil till the last step of harvesting the crop.
Soyabeans is a broad acre crop. Soybeans is a key source of protein for human and animals. Soybeans is widely used for the production of animal feeds in Nigeria. Soybeans is also known as a staple food in Nigeria.
A lot of the fish meal used for the raising of fish in Nigeria is partly made with soybeans.
Steps to take to start soyabeans farming in Nigeria
The following are the steps to plant soybeans in Nigeria:
- Farmland or Site Selection
- Climatic Requirements
- Soil Suitable for Soybeans Farming
- Soil Preparation
- Soybeans Variety to Plant
- Equipment to Use for Soybeans Farming
- Planting of the Soybeans Seeds
- Weed Control
- Fertilizer and Manure Management
- Management of Pests and Diseases
1) Farmland or Site Selection
The site or farmland to be used for soybeans farming should have good soil. There should also be a good access road to the farmland for the easy evacuation of the farm produce.
The site should have abundant sunshine and tropical climatic condition as soybeans can only grow well in tropical conditions.
2) Climatic Requirements
Soybeans is a tropical crop. It can only do well in areas that are warm with abundant sunshine. Soybeans will not do well in cold areas.
Soyabeans crop prefers a lot of sunlight. It also needs a warm weather condition. The more the sun, the better the soybeans yield.
3) Soil Suitable for Soybeans Farming
Soybeans prefers sandy loamy soil as this the most suitable type of soil for its growth. The soil should also have a well-draining capacity. Pure sandy soil and clay soil do not make soybeans crop grow well.
The soil pH should be 5.0 – 7.5. Soil that is too acidic should not be used for the growing of soybeans. Soil that has a high alkaline content should also be avoided.
4) Soil Preparation
Bulldozers should be used to remove trees from heavily forested farmland. Care should be taken so that the top soil will not be removed. Manual labourers can also be used for deforestation; however, this will take a lot of time.
Ploughing, harrowing and ridging should also be done. Several rounds of ploughing may be done so that the soil will have a good structure. Ridging may also be done, though this is not compulsory.
5) Choosing the Soybeans Variety to Plant
Hybrid soyabeans varieties are more productive than the open pollinated varieties. Hybrid soyabeans varieties also resist pests and diseases than open pollinated varieties.
6) Equipment to Use for Soybeans Farming
The following equipment can be used for soybeans farming
- Farm House
- Power Tiller
- Earth Augers
- Weeders etc.
Irrigation can be used to enhance the growing of soybeans. It can also allow soyabeans farmers to grow their crop in the dry season.
The following are the types of irrigation that can be used for soybeans farming in Nigeria:
- Drip Irrigation
- Sprinkler Irrigation
- Furrow Irrigation
- Spray Tube Irrigation etc.
8) Planting of the Soybeans Seeds
Soybeans seeds should be planted in 1 cm hole. The intra row spacing of soybeans plant should be 5-10while the inter row spacing should be 10cm – 15 cm.
The following are some soybeans varieties or seeds in Nigeria:
- Variety: SC-SL01 (S1079/6/7)
- Variety: NCRISOY 2 (TGx 1989-19F)
- Variety: NCRISOY 1 (TGx 1988-5F)
- Variety: TGx 1951-3F (TGx 1951-3F)
- Variety: TGx 1987-62F ()
- Variety: TGx 1987-10F ()
- Variety: TGx 1904-6F ()
- Variety: TGx 1835-10E (TGx 1835-10E)
- Variety: TGX-1448-2E (TGX-1448-2E)
Source: Seed Portal
9) Weed Control
Herbicides are usual used for the control of weeds in soybeans farming. There are selective herbicides that can be used in soybeans farms, these selective herbicides will kill weeds but they do not have any effect on the main soyabeans crop.
Mechanical tools like weeders can also be used for weeding. Hoes and cutlasses can also be used to remove weeds on soybeans farms.
10) Fertilizer and Manure Management
Soybeans is a leguminous crop; it grows well when phosphorus fertilizers are used. Phosphatic fertilizers like Single Super Phosphate (SSP) fertilizer, Diammonium Phosphate (DAP) fertilizer and Mono Ammonium Phosphate (MAP) fertilizers are some of the best types of fertilizers for the growing of soyabeans.
A soil test is advised to be done before the application of any type of fertilizer.
11) Management of Pests and Diseases
Pesticides like insecticides, fungicides, bactericides and nematicides etc. should be used to prevent and manage pests and diseases in soybeans farms. Pesticides can help soybeans farmers to assure good yield in soyabeans farming.
Pesticides like Belt Expert, Decis, Ampligo and Tihan etc. can be used to manage pests and diseases in soybeans farms.
Harvesting starts within 45 – 65 days after the sowing of the seeds. Harvesting of matured soybeans pods in large farms is usually done with the use of mechanized harvesters. For small farms, cutlasses and sickles should be used.
Soybeans is usually sold in the open market after harvest. 100kg bags or sacks are usually used to pack harvested soybeans grains.
Cost to Start a One Hectare Soybeans Farm in Nigeria
The cost to start a one hectare soybeans farm is detailed below:
- Rent of one hectare farmland: ₦21,000
- Clearing, Ploughing and Harrowing: ₦57,000
- Seeds: ₦32,000
- Planting: ₦10,000
- Irrigation: ₦305,000 – ₦655,000 (Optional)
- Fertilizers and Manure: ₦21,000 – ₦102,000 (Depending on soil fertility)
- Pesticides: ₦22,000
- Others: ₦105,000
FAQ on Soybeans Farming
a) Question: Where can I buy high yielding and early maturing soybeans varieties in Nigeria
Answer: You buy high yielding soyabeans seeds from our stores in Lagos and Ibadan.
b) Question: What type of irrigation can be used for soybeans farming?
Answer: Drip irrigation, flood irrigation, spray tube irrigation and sprinkler irrigation can be used for the growing of soybeans.
c) Question: Is soybeans farming profitable?
Answer: Soybeans is lucrative if done well. It is one of the most profitable farming ventures in Nigeria.
d) Question: When is the peak time for the price of soybeans in Nigeria?
Answer: The dry season months of November to March is the peak time for the price of soybeans in Nigeria. This is due to the scarcity of soybeans during this period.
e) Question: What is the average yield of soybeans?
Answer: The average yield of soyabeans per hectare is 2 -5 tons.
f) Question: What fertilizers are good for soybeans farming in Nigeria?
Answer: SSP, DAP and MAP fertilizers are the best types of fertilizers that can be used for soybeans farming in Nigeria.
Should you need any information on soybeans farming in Nigeria, kindly contact us through firstname.lastname@example.org.
Read our post on the cost of soybeans farming per hectare in Nigeria