Beniseed Farming in Nigeria – How to Grow Beniseed (Sesame Farming)
Beniseed farming is the cultivation of beniseed crop from the initial step of land preparation to the final steps of harvesting the beniseed crop, storage and marketing. Beniseed farming involves all the steps needed for a farmer to sow the seeds of beniseed in the soil till the last step of harvesting the crop.
Beniseed is more profitable with limited resources or inputs than other crops using the same resources.
Beniseed also called sesame is a drought resistant crop. This crop can thrive in the dry savannah region of Nigeria. Beniseed is also hardy, it can tolerate a lot of insect attacks unlike other crops.
Sesame can suppress root-knot nematode and cotton root rot. Beniseed can also help to reduce soil water retention and increase the yield of the following crops.
Steps to take to start beniseed farming in Nigeria
The following are the steps to plant sesame in Nigeria:
- Farmland or Site Selection
- Climatic Requirements
- Soil Suitable for Beniseed Farming
- Soil Preparation
- Beniseed Variety to Plant
- Equipment to Use for Beniseed Farming
- Planting of the Beniseed Seeds
- Weed Control
- Fertilizer and Manure Management
- Management of Pests and Diseases
1) Farmland or Site Selection
The site or farmland to be used for beniseed farming should have good soil. There should also be a good access road to the farmland for the easy evacuation of the farm produce.
The site should have abundant sunshine and tropical climatic condition as sesame can only grow well in tropical conditions.
2) Climatic Requirements
Beniseed is a tropical crop. It does well in tropical conditions. It will not do well in temperate areas.
Beniseed crop prefers a lot of sunlight. It also needs a warm weather condition. The more the sun, the better the beniseed yield.
3) Soil Suitable for Sesame Farming
Beniseed prefers medium to light well drained soil as this the most suitable type of soil for its growth. The soil should also have a well-draining capacity. Sesame will not do well in saline soil. It also will not do well in water logged area.
The soil pH should be 5.0 – 8.0. Soil that is too acidic should not be used for the growing of beniseed. Soil that has a high alkaline content should also be avoided.
4) Soil Preparation
Bulldozers should be used to remove trees from heavily forested farmland. Care should be taken so that the top soil will not be removed. Manual labourers can also be used for deforestation; however, this will take a lot of time.
Ploughing, harrowing and ridging should also be done. Several rounds of ploughing may be done so that the soil will have a good structure. Ridging may also be done, though this is not compulsory.
5) Choosing the Beniseed Variety to Plant
The two main beniseed varieties are the local beniseed variety and the Chinese variety. However, there are some improved sesame varieties in Nigeria that yield higher than the two well-known varieties.
6) Equipment to Use for Beniseed Farming
The following equipment can be used for beniseed farming
- Farm House
- Power Tiller
- Earth Augers
- Weeders etc.
Irrigation can be used to enhance the growing of beniseed. It can also allow beniseed farmers to grow their crop in the dry season.
The following are the types of irrigation that can be used for beniseed farming in Nigeria:
- Drip Irrigation
- Sprinkler Irrigation
- Furrow Irrigation
- Spray Tube Irrigation etc.
8) Planting of the Beniseed Seeds
Beniseed seeds should be planted by seeding 25 – 35 sesame seeds per foot.
The following are some beniseed varieties or seeds in Nigeria:
- Local Beniseed Variety
- Chinese Beniseed Variety
- Improved Beniseed Variety
9) Weed Control
Herbicides are usual used for the control of weeds in beniseed farming. There are selective herbicides that can be used in beniseed farms, these selective herbicides will kill weeds but they do not have any effect on the main beniseed crop.
Glyphosate, metolachlor, diuron and linuron are some of the herbicides that can be used for sesame farming in Nigeria.
Mechanical tools like weeders can also be used for weeding. Hoes and cutlasses can also be used to remove weeds on beniseed farms.
10) Fertilizer and Manure Management
Beniseed is one of the few crops that will do well with little or no fertilizer. Beniseed can do well in poor soil. However, the use of manure and balanced NPK fertilizer can improve the yield of beniseed crop.
A soil test is advised to be done before the application of any type of fertilizer.
11) Management of Pests and Diseases
Pesticides like insecticides, fungicides, bactericides and nematicides etc. should be used to prevent and manage pests and diseases in beniseed farms. Pesticides can help beniseed farmers to assure good yield in beniseed farming.
Pesticides like Belt Expert, Decis, Ampligo and Tihan etc. can be used to manage pests and diseases in beniseed farms.
Harvesting starts within 100 – 130 days after the sowing of the seeds. Harvesting of matured beniseed pods in large farms is usually done with the use of mechanized harvesters. For small farms, cutlasses and sickles should be used.
Beniseed is usually sold in the open market after harvest. 100kg bags or sacks are usually used to pack harvested sesame grains.
Cost to Start a One Hectare Beniseed Farm in Nigeria
The cost to start a one hectare beniseed farm is detailed below:
- Rent of one hectare farmland: ₦20,000
- Clearing, Ploughing and Harrowing: ₦50,000
- Seeds: ₦50,000
- Planting: ₦10,000
- Irrigation: ₦305,000 – ₦655,000 (Optional)
- Fertilizers and Manure: ₦20,000 (Depending on soil fertility)
- Pesticides: ₦10,000
- Others: ₦50,000
FAQ on Sesame Farming
a) Question: Where can I buy high yielding and early maturing beniseed varieties in Nigeria?
Answer: You buy sesame varieties from us. Kindly contact 08025141924.
b) Question: What type of irrigation can be used for beniseed farming?
Answer: Drip irrigation, flood irrigation, spray tube irrigation and sprinkler irrigation can be used for the growing of beniseed.
c) Question: Is beniseed farming profitable?
Answer: Beniseed is one of the most lucrative crops in Nigeria. As a matter of fact, sesame grain buyers go to villages and rural areas to buy off sesame grains from farmers.
d) Question: When is the peak time for the price of beniseed in Nigeria?
Answer: The dry season months of November to March is the peak time for the price of beniseed in Nigeria. This is due to the scarcity of beniseed during this period.
e) Question: What is the average yield of beniseed?
Answer: The average yield of beniseed per hectare is 1-2 tons.
f) Question: What fertilizers are good for beniseed farming in Nigeria?
Answer: Balanced NPK fertilizers are the best type of fertilizers for beniseed farming.
Should you need any information on beniseed farming in Nigeria, kindly contact us through firstname.lastname@example.org.